DALLAS — More than a dozen Army officials have been terminated or suspended as part of a sweeping investigation into the climate and culture at Fort Hood, a major military base in Texas that has been rocked by complaints of sexual harassment, bullying and violence, Army officials announced on Tuesday.

The investigation found “major flaws” at Fort Hood and a command climate “that was permissive of sexual harassment and sexual assault,” said Ryan D. McCarthy, the secretary of the Army.

He ordered the firing or suspension of 14 officials up and down the ranks, including several high-ranking leaders, and vowed sweeping reform that would extend far beyond Fort Hood to affect more than 1 million soldiers and Army civilians nationwide.

“This report, without a doubt, will cause the Army to change our culture,” Mr. McCarthy said at a news conference announcing the results of the investigation.

The investigation came in response to the slaying of Vanessa Guillen, a 20-year-old Army specialist who told friends and fellow soldiers that she had been sexually harassed before she disappeared in April. Her remains, burned and dismembered, were found in June, and the authorities said she was killed on base by a fellow soldier who later took his own life.

The horror of her killing left the Army reeling and drew attention to the unusually high number of homicides, suicides and accidents that have turned Fort Hood, one of the nation’s largest military bases, into one of the most troubled.

For the 36,500 soldiers at Fort Hood, the homeland has been deadlier than the battlefront. Since January 2016, there have been more than 150 noncombat deaths of Fort Hood soldiers, including at least seven homicides and 71 suicides.

Both male and female troops have described a culture of sexual harassment and bullying at the base in Killeen, Texas.

In August, the body of Sgt. Elder N. Fernandes, 23, was found hanging from a tree about 30 miles from Fort Hood. His family said he had reported sexual assault by a superior and that he had been retaliated against after having spoken out.

The case of Specialist Guillen drew particular attention, spurring artistic murals, makeshift memorial sites and attention from Congress and the White House.

Specialist Guillen, who was Latina, grew up in Houston and had dreamed of joining the military since childhood, when she would play with her brother’s toy pistol, family members said. Young and athletic, she enlisted in the Army at 18.

She later told friends and fellow soldiers that she had been sexually harassed, though officials said she had not made any formal complaints.

She went missing on April 22, and her dismembered and burned remains were found in June. Federal investigators said that a soldier in her unit, Specialist Aaron D. Robinson, struck her in the head with a hammer and that he and his girlfriend dismembered and burned her body.

Specialist Robinson later killed himself as the police approached him, the authorities said. His girlfriend, Cecily Aguilar, faces a charge of conspiracy to tamper with evidence.

John Ismay contributed reporting from New York, and David Montgomery from Austin, Texas.

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